بررسی استفاده از پرکننده های طبیعی در آمیزه های لاستیکی و تاثیر آنها بر خواص مکانیکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر دانشکده مهندسی پلیمر و رنگ، تهران، ایران

10.22034/irm.2022.152947

چکیده

در هر کشوری با توجه به موقعیت جغرافیایی آن کشور، محصوالت منحصر به فرد وجود دارند که از قابلیت کاربرد در آمیزه 
های الستیکی برخوردار می باشند. نشان داده شده است که استفاده از برخی از آن ها می تواند به بهبود خواص مکانیکی آمیزه 
الستیکی، سازگاری با محیط زیست و در مواردی به کاهش هزینه بیانجامد. بنابراین اطالع از خواص و ویژگی های این مواد و 
نیز استفاده از تجارب دیگران در به کارگیری آن ها می تواند کمک موثری بر انتخاب آنها به عنوان یک جز از آمیزه بنمایند. 
در این تحقیق، براساس مقاالت و مطالعات گزارش شده، تعدادی از مواد که می توانند به عنوان پرکننده مصرف شوند معرفی 
شده و تاثیر آنها بر خواص مکانیکی مواد پلیمری به ویژه آمیزه های الستیکی ارایه می شود. برخی از این مواد در داخل کشور 
قابل دسترس بوده و مطالب ارایه شده در این مطالعه، در چگونگی به کارگیری آنها کمک می نماید. همچنین انتظار می رود که 
توجه به این موضوع انگیزه ای باشد برای یافتن دیگر موادی که بومی کشور ما هستند و قابلیت به کارگیری در آمیزه را دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


[1]Wolfgang Tegethoff, F. "Calcium Carbonate from the Cretaceous Period into the 21st Century”, Springer 2001. 
[2]Sadeghi Ghari, H.; Jalali-Arani, A. "Nanocomposites based on natural rubber, organoclay and nano-calcium 
carbonate: Study on the structure, cure behavior, static and dynamic-mechanical properties", Appl. Clay Sci., 119, 
PP. 348-357 (2016). 
[5]Imanah, J.E.; Okieimen, F.E. “Studies in the Utilization of Agricultural Waste Products as Filler in Natural Rubber 
Compounds”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 100, PP. 2561-2564 (2006).
[4]Sae-uol, P.; Rakdee, C.; Thanmathorn, P. “Use of Rice Husk Ash as Filler in Natural Rubber Vulcanizates: In 
Comparison With Other Commercial Fillers”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 83, PP.2485-2893 (2002).
[5]Ismail, H.; Nasaruddin, M.N.; Ishiaku, U.S. “White Rice Husk Ash Filled Natural Rubber Compound: The Effect 
of Multifunctional Additive and Silane Coupling Agents”, J. Polym. Testing, 18, PP.187-198 (1999).
[6]Guan, J.F.; Yang, H.Q; Yu, Y.Q.; Chen, Y.; Yang, G.B. “Reinforcement of Natural Rubber with Quartz/Sericite/
Wollastonite”, J. Adv. Materials research, 239-242, PP.2953-2957 (2011)
[7]Zhen, S.; Jihuai, W. “Application of Talcum-Wollastonite Compounding Mineral Filler to Silicone Rubber”, China 
Synthetic Rubber ind., (1999)
[8]Liu, X.; Huang, S.; Qiu, G. "Preparation and Application of Wollastonite Powders”, Conservation and Utilization 
of Mineral Resources", (2001)
[9]Wei, J.; Ge, X.; Shi, L. “Superfine Grinding and Surface Modification of Wollastonite and Its Application in 
Rubber”, Ind. Minerals and Processing, (2006)
[10]Park, E.S. “Mechanical Properties and Process ability of Glass fiber, Wollastonite and Flouro Rubber-Reinforced 
Silicone Rubber Composites”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 105, PP.460-468 (2007)
[11]Chen, Y.; Ge, X.; Wei, J. “Mechanical Properties of Modified Wollastonite Filled in Rubber”, ind. Minerals and 
Processing, (2007).
[12]Singh, U.P.; Biswas, B.K.; Ray, B.C. “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Filled With 
Wollastonite and Silicone Rubber”, Minerals Sci. and Eng., 501, PP.94-98 (2009).
[13]Chatterjee, A.; Khobragade, Satyendra Mishra, S. "Physic mechanical properties of wollastonite (CaSiO3)/
styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites" Appl. Polym. Sci., 132, 42811 (2015).
[14]Akçakale, N.; Bülbül, S. "The Effect of Mica Powder and Wollastonite Fillings on the Mechanical Properties of 
NR/SBR Type Elastomer Compounds", Journal of Rubber Research, 20, 157–167 (2017).
[15]Osabohien, E.; Egboh, S.H.O. “An Investigation on the Reinforcing Potential of Red Earth as Filler for Natural 
Rubber Compounds”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 105, PP.515-520 (2007). 
[16]Poompradub, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Kokubo, Y.; Shiono, T. “Cuttlebone as Reinforcing Filler for Natural Rubber”, Eur 
Polym J., 44, PP.4157-4164 (2008).
[17]Poompradub, S.; Klungsuwan, P. “Smart Green Composite: Effect of Cuttlebone Particle on Mechanical Properties 
of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates”, Adv. Material Research, 150-151, PP.547-550 (2010)
[18]Klungsuwan, P.; Jarerat, A.; Poompradub, S. "Mechanical Properties and Biodegradability of Cuttlebone/NR 
Composites", J. Polym. Environ., 21, PP. 766–779 (2013).
[19]Salem, A.; Bensalah, W.; Mezlini, S. 'Tribological Investigation of HDPE-cuttlebone and HDPE-red Coral 
Composites", Journal of Bionic Engineering, 16, PP. 1068–1079 (2019).
[20]Pillai, C.K.S.; Paul, W.; Sharma, C.P. “Chitin and Chitosan Polymers: Chemistry Solubility and Fiber and 
Formation”, J. Progress in Polym. Sci., 34, PP.641-678(2009).
[21]Abdullah, S. “Dynamic Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Natural Rubber: Chitosan Blends”, Thesis 
(Masters), (1993)
[22]Nair, K.G.; Dufresne, A. “Crab Shell Chitin Whisker reinforced Natural Rubber Nano-Composites.1. Processing 
and Swelling Behavior”, J. Biomacromolecules, 4, PP.657-665 (2003).
[23]Nair, K.G.; Dufresne, A. “Crab Shell Chitin Whisker reinforced Natural Rubber Nano-Composites.2. Mechanical 
Behavior”, J. Biomacromolecules, 4, PP.666-674 (2003).
[24]Nair, K.G.; Dufresne, A. “Crab Shell Chitin Whisker reinforced Natural Rubber Nano-Composites.3. Effect of 
Chemical Modification of Chitin Whiskers”, J. Biomacromolecules, 4, PP.1835-1842 (2003).
[25]Johns, J.; Rao, V. “Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Elastomeric Blends of Chitosan and Natural Rubber 
Latex”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 107, PP.2217-2223 (2007).
[26]Johns, J.; Rao, V. “Characterization of Natural Rubber Latex/Chitosan Blends”, Int. J. Polym. Anal. Charact., , 
13, PP.280-291(2008).
[27]Ismail, H.; Shaari, S.M.; Othman, N. “The Effect of Chitosan Loading on The Curing Characteristics, Mechanical 
and Morphological Properties of Chitosan-filled NR, ENR and SBR Compounds”, J. Polym. Testing, 30, PP.784-
790 (2011).
[28]Magida, M. M.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Elnahas, H.H. "Effect of gamma radiation on the characterization of chitosan/
natural rubber latex polymer blends" Int. J. Polym. Anal. Charact., 25 (8), PP. 565-580 (2020).
[29]Rezazadeh, N.; Kianvash, A. "Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of chitosan/silicone rubber 
filled zeolite, silver, and copper nanocomposites against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant 
Staphylococcus aureus" J. Appl. Polym. Sci, 138(23), 50552 (2021).
[30]Ismail, H.; Nasaruddin, M.N.; Ishiaku, U.S. “White Rice Husk Ash Filled Natural Rubber Compound: The Effect 
of Multifunctional Additive and Silane Coupling Agents”, J. Polym. Testing, 18, PP.187-198 (1999).
[31]Shens, E.; Bradley, R.H.; Sutherland, I.; Freakley, P.K.; Ismail, H. “Interfacial Effects of Multifunctional Additives 
on Carbon Black Filled Rubber”, Surf. Interface Anal., 22, PP.491-496 (1994).
[32]Ismail, H.; Siriwardena, S.; Ishiaku, U.S. “Effect of Mixing Sequence in The Prepration of WRHA Filled PP/
EPDM Blend”, J. Polym. Testing, 20, PP.105-113(2000).
[33]Ismail, H.; Nasaruddin, M.N.; Ishiaku, U.S. “White Rice Husk Ash Filled Natural Rubber Compound: The Effect 
of Multifunctional Additive and Silane Coupling Agents”, J. Polym. Testing, 18, PP.187-198 (1999).
[34]Ismail, H.; Siriwardena, S.; Ishiaku, U.S. “Effect of Mixing Sequence in The Prepration of WRHA Filled PP/
EPDM Blend”, J. Polym. Testing, 20, PP.105-113(2000).
[35]Boonmee, A.; Sabsiriroht, P.; Jarukumjorn,K., "Preparation and characterization of rice husk ash for using as a 
filler in natural rubber" Materials Today: Proceedings, 17, PP. 2097-2103 (2019). 
[36]Sethuramalingam, V.C.; Prabagaran, S.; Ganesan, K. "Studies on influence of silica filler and rice husk ash on the 
mechanical properties of vulcanized hybrid rubber composite" Materials Today: Proceedings, 37, PP. 2207-2213 
(2019).
[37]Imanah, J.E.; Okieimen, F.E. “Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber Reinforced with 
Agricultural Byproducts”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 90, PP.3718-3722 (2003).
[38]Nkengafac, N.J.; Alegria, A.; Arrese- Igor, S.; Edgengele, A.; Eugene, E, "A Comparative Study on the Thermal 
Behaviour of Natural Rubber Filled with Carbon Black and Plant Residues", Journal of Materials Science Research 
and Reviews, 6, PP 21-30 (2020).
[39]Sun, K.; Jiang, J.; Zhang, T.; Deng, X.; Dai, W. “Study on Preparation of Activated Carbon from Rubber Seed 
Shell with Steam Method”, J. Chemistry and ind. Of Forest Products, (2006)
[40]Akinlabi, A.K.; Okieimen, F.E.; Okwu, V.N. “Properties of Vulcanizates from Blends of Natural Rubber and 
Thioglycolic Acid Modified, Epoxidized, Low Molecular Weight Natural Rubber Filled with Carbonized Rubber 
Seed Shell”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 104, PP.2830-2838 (2007).
[41]Ekebafe, L.O.; Imanah, J.E.; Okieimen, F.E. “Physico-Mechanical Properties of Rubber Seed Sheel Carbon: 
Filled Natural Rubber Compounds”, J. Chem. Ind. And Chem. Eng. Quarterly, 16, PP.149-156 (2010).
[42]Danial Shafiq, M.; Ismail, H. "The effect of epoxidized vegetable oil and phthalic anhydride as compatibilizers